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Some experiments have been performed, and the experimental results verify the feasibility of the method. Camera calibration of a near-parallel imaging system based on magnification rate. Microscopes are now widely used in the field of three-dimensional measurements for their high magnification and changeable physical focal length. However, the small depth of focus restricts the camera from taking clear images with apparent tilts. To set the camera in focus, the calibration board should be near-parallel to the imaging plane. As a result, the traditional calibration methods are not practical for a normal lens, which requires multiple views of the calibration board.

For this, a method in which a digital camera with a microscope is calibrated precisely under the near-parallel condition is proposed. In this method, the magnification rate of the imaging system, which is equal to the rate of image distance to object distance, is calculated precisely and utilized to calculate camera parameters. Due to the invariance of the magnification rate, the parameters calculated by this method are accurate and stable. In addition, to solve the problem that the physical focal length cannot be calibrated by one image, the magnification method is adopted to measure it.

Finally, the stability and accuracy are evaluated by simulations and experiments. Flexible method for improved transmitter parameter calibration in accurate large-scale positioning system. An accurate large-scale positioning system is a three-dimensional workspace measuring and positioning the laser scanning-based system that is widely used in smart manufacturing and assembly applications.

The system includes laser transmitters that are typically calibrated using one of two methods: a high-precision rotary table-dependent method or a three-dimensional 3-D coordinate control network-dependent method. However, these methods are error-prone and inefficient. We propose a flexible calibration method that is based on the transmitter geometry and employs the characteristic angles of the transmitter as calibration targets that do not change with transmitter location or orientation.

The proposed method also utilizes a calibration algorithm that is based on a highly precise 3-D coordinate control network and includes an optimization algorithm and an estimation algorithm to produce initial values. Furthermore, the results of verification experiments show that the proposed method decreases the deviation of each control point and the root-mean-square error to 0.

Measurement of nanoscale displacements using a Mirau white-light interference microscope and an inclined flat surface. Measuring nanoscale displacement is crucial for optical nanometrology. We report an approach to measure vertical nanoscale movements using a Mirau white-light interference microscope.

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Our technique is different compared with conventional methods. The vertical nanoscale displacement is determined by analyzing interference patterns in the x direction instead of common z direction via an inclined surface, which reduces the processing time. By analyzing the obtained interference images, which appear at two successive positions of an inclined flat surface, the maxima of interference signals and the tilt angle are determined. From these two parameters, the displacement is calculated.

Using this approach, the transition of several tens of nanometers can be measured. We experimentally investigate the movement of a piezoelectric transducer and the obtained result agrees well with that provided by the manufacturer. Our finding is highly beneficial for optical measurements and surface topography. Calibration of quad-camera measurement systems using a one-dimensional calibration object for three-dimensional point reconstruction.

A quad-camera visual measurement system must have a calibration accuracy that is equivalent to its reconstruction accuracy. We investigate the effects of quad-camera calibration methods and propose a method based on a one-dimensional 1-D object. First, the essential matrices are calculated and combined with the RANSAC method to obtain the image coordinate of the 1-D calibration object.

Then, the initial values of the four camera matrices are retrieved from the essential matrices to scale. Subsequently, the Euclidean distance between the calibration points of the 1-D calibration object is used to retrieve the scale factor. Furthermore, an uncertainty analysis of three-dimensional 3-D point reconstruction is conducted, and based on this, an iterative linear calibration method is introduced to refine the initial calibration results.

Finally, a set of calibration objective functions are established by analyzing the measurement process. A synthetic optimizing algorithm is adopted to obtain the high-precision calibration results of the quad-camera measurement system. Experiments are conducted to analyze the calibration accuracy and robustness of the proposed method in the presence of noise.

The results indicate that the proposed method can increase the 3-D measurement accuracy and robustness.

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High dynamic range three-dimensional shape reconstruction via an auto-exposure-based structured light technique. High dynamic range object has large surface reflectivity variations, which easily produces saturated and low-contrast regions in the captured images, further resulting in large calculation errors of gray value or phase value, then seriously affecting the reconstruction accuracy.

An auto-exposure-based structured light technique is proposed. In this method, the relationship between noise-induced phase error and intensity modulation is first analyzed. It is demonstrated that once the intensity modulation of a pixel is larger than a threshold, its phase error can be considered acceptable.

Then, the surface reflectivity of the measured target is estimated by projecting a series of uniform gray-level patterns and classified into several groups. The exposure time for each group is automatically determined after establishing its mathematical model based on the modulation threshold. Phase-shifted images are then captured at the computed exposure times, and a set of composite phase-shifted images is acquired by extracting the brightest unsaturated pixels in the raw fringe images.

The experiments show that the proposed method can automatically calculate the exposure times and capture the fringe images without human intervention. In addition, it can well tackle saturated and dark areas of the measured target and the reconstructed three-dimensional shape is complete and accurate. Optical Design and Engineering.

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Assembly process and optical performances for a golden laser spark-plug device. The low-stress Solderjet Bumping technique was employed to assemble the optical components of an increased-robustness laser spark-plug ignition device using the low melting alloys Potential applications of nanoshell bow-tie antennas for biological imaging and hyperthermia therapy. Elaheh Karooby , Nosrat Granpayeh. Silver nanoshell bow-tie antennas, two separate triangular dielectric cores covered by thin silver shells, have the potential of being used in different absorption- and scattering-based applications.

The fields are highly localized in the gap region between the two components of the antenna. The dependence of the near-field and far-field spectra of silica-core silver nanoshells on antenna geometrical parameters, such as length, bow angle, gap width, and shell thickness, are investigated by applying the finite element method.

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Also, the effect of the dielectric permittivity of the antenna core is theoretically studied. The results show how the position and intensity of the electric field, absorption, scattering, and extinction resonance peak can be tuned within visible and near-infrared regions. By investigating the absorption and scattering spectra, we have designed appropriate silver nanoshell bow-tie antennas for the absorption- and scattering-based applications, such as hyperthermia therapy and biological imaging.

The introduced nanoshells have high potential to be used as effective contrast and therapeutic agents.


Accelerating optics design optimizations with deep learning. Ravi Hegde. We show that design optimizations, an integral but time-consuming component of optical engineering, can be significantly sped-up when paired with deep neural networks DNNs. By using the DNN indirectly for choosing initializations and candidate preselection, our approach obviates the need for large networks, big datasets, long training epochs, and excessive hyperparameter optimization. Our approach is a promising option for the optimal design of optical devices and systems. Optical characterization of silicon dioxide thin films prepared by ion-assisted electron beam deposition.

A single-layer SiO 2 film is deposited using ion-assisted electron beam evaporation technique, and the deposited film is characterized using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV—Vis—NIR spectrophotometer, coherence correlation interferometer, and Abbe refractometer as well as image processing techniques to investigate its optical and surface properties.

The surface quality of the film in terms of average roughness, kurtosis, skewness, and power spectral density PSD is analyzed using interferometer and image processing. The refractive index of the SiO 2 film is found to increase from 1. This is corroborated by Abbe refractometer findings where the film refractive index is found to be 1.

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Statistical indicators of surface quality extract from interferometric images such as kurtosis, skewness, and PSD and also exhibit sharp decline in their respective values of the coated surface as compared to the uncoated substrate indicating improvement in the surface quality after coating. Improved light extraction efficiency of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor hot carrier lights sources with the use of improved back-end-of-line light directing structures.

Anthony Bulling , Petrus Venter. Previous research has shown that the use of back-end-of-line BEOL light directing structures with silicon hot carrier light sources in a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor results in improved light extraction efficiency. This work focuses on the design of an improved back-end-of-line structure for improving light extraction efficiency when using substrate-based silicon light emitters. With the use of FRED optical engineering ray-tracing software, it was found that a significant amount of generated light is lost at the material interfaces of the optical structure, including losses due to significant internal reflections.

Therefore, an optimized optical structure was designed to reduce internal reflections at the base of the structure. Simulation results show a The light sources were tested using a parameter analyzer, radiometer, spectrometer, and goniometer. It was calculated that the luminance exiting the optimized optical structure had a Furthermore, the optimized structure had a 1. Overall, the improved designed pipe-like BEOL light directing structure helped to improve the device luminescence and light emission direction from the light source, which invariably increased the light extraction efficiency.

Experimental demonstration of anamorphic M 2 laser transformation in polar coordinates. Alexander Brodsky , Natan Kaplan.

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Transforming the beam of a highly multimode laser into a narrow annular shape with almost diffraction-limited ring width is a potentially useful technique for certain material processing applications, such as drilling and cutting. In a previous article, we have described and simulated a theoretical method of realizing such transformation. Here, we provide experimental verification of this method, based on transforming the laser beam quality parameter M 2 in polar coordinates.

Measured results have been compared with the theoretical model and simulations. Lasers, Fiber Optics, and Communications. Full-duplex mobile fronthaul link for low- and high-frequency hybrid network architecture with colorless RRU based on analog radio over fiber technology. Such MFH architecture can carry out low- and high-frequency hybrid networking for common seamless wide coverage and high data rate requirements in hotspot areas.

The polarization multiplexing technology and power splitters employed make the RRU and F-RRU free from the laser sources, as the uplink optical carrier is abstracted from the downlink. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the reliability of the proposed MFH architecture, and results show that the radio signals maintain strong performance after standard single mode fiber transmission.

Positioning and advertising in large indoor environments using visible light communication. We investigate the applicability of an intuitive advertising system for large indoor environments using visible light communication VLC. This VLC-based positioning system includes the use of the visible light signals to light the space and to transmit information for traveler positioning and for advertising campaigns in the surroundings.

Although their original function is to provide illumination, due to the ability of each individual chip to switch quickly enough to transfer data, they were used to broadcast information. This functionality is used for communication where multiplexed data can be encoded in the emitting light. A silicon carbide optical sensor with light filtering and demultiplexing properties receives the modulated signals containing the ID, the geographical position of the LED, and other information, and then it demultiplexes and decodes the data and locates the mobile device within the environment.

Different layouts are analyzed; square and hexagonal meshes are tested, and a two-dimensional localization design, demonstrated by a prototype implementation, is presented. The key differences between both topologies are discussed. For both, the transmitted information, indoor position, and motion direction of the customer are determined.

The results show that the LED-aided VLC navigation system enables to determine the position of a mobile target inside the network, to infer the travel direction as a function of time, and to interact with the received information. Influence of beam shape on piston and tilt error in coherent combined laser array. Przemyslaw Gontar , Jan Jabczynski. An analysis of beam combining quality and the influence of beam profile on tilt and piston error tolerances is presented.

We define beam combining performance metrics in terms of powers contained within a specific radius. It is shown that the selection of this radius has a significant effect on the obtained tolerance values. In addition, for the tilt error, as tolerance limit, we have taken a pointing error equal to the diffraction limit.

Our analysis demonstrates that the beam combining performance metric based on the diffraction-limited radius functions best for describing the impact of aberrations on the coherent combined laser array optical system. Our results lead to two important conclusions. First, the tilt error has a greater impact on the degradation of beam quality.

Second, a Gaussian beam has greater tolerance for both errors than a top-hat beam. Multiwavelength Q-switched pulse operation with gold nanoparticles as saturable absorber. A multiwavelength Q-switched pulse operation obtained directly using a Tm-doped fiber laser and employing gold nanoparticles GNPs as a saturable absorber SA material is reported.

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever reported use of GNPs as SA in multiwavelength Q-switched lasing generation. Beam quality improvement of coherent beam combining by gradient power distribution hexagonal tiled-aperture large laser array. We investigated the beam quality improvement of a tiled-aperture coherent beam combining by changing the intensity distribution of fiber beamlets array. An optimal gradient power distribution of the beam array is found.

The beam quality is improved by With the expansion of the array scale, the improvement of beam propagation factor is becoming more obvious. In addition, the effects of phase error and beamlet arrangement layout are also researched, which shows the propagation factor of the hexagonal ring arrangement is improved by The effect of phase error on the combined beam quality with respect to the gradient distribution is discussed.

Furthermore, compared with conventional IAM, it exhibits 3. In addition, the system can achieve a total data rate of 3. Deep neural network-based soft-failure detection and failure aware routing and spectrum allocation for elastic optic networks. Soft failure with lower optical signal-to-noise ratio OSNR might reduce the quality of the supported services. When the soft failure is detected, the affected existing lightpaths are usually rerouted with alternative paths to avoid the use of the degraded link. However, rerouting without distinguishing between hard failure and soft failure may result in a problem of low utilization of network resources.

To address this problem, a soft-failure detection method based on deep neural network DNN is proposed to detect and localize the failure in elastic optical network. Then, a soft failure aware resources allocation algorithm based on genetic algorithm SFA-GA is used for routing and spectrum allocation RSA in the network. Based on the estimated OSNR evolution over time, the soft failure can be identified with the degraded link localized. When soft failure exists in the network, the proposed SFA-GA can support the highest traffic load among all five algorithms at any given blocking ratio.

At a blocking ratio of 0. The traffic load can increase to over Erlangs if a higher blocking ratio of 0. Gain flattened C-band hybrid optical amplifier achieving high and flat gain over nm bandwidth for dense wavelength division multiplexed system. Hafiz Muhammad Obaid , Hifsa Shahid. Increase in data rate demand requires continuous improvement in existing optical amplification schemes. The obtained high and flat gain, along with the low noise figure, justifies the feasibility of the proposed amplifier for applications in broadband long-haul DWDM systems. Sensing properties of long-period fiber grating with coating InSnO by pulsed laser deposition.

The influence of different film thickness on grating coupling coefficient and transmittance has been analyzed based on a four-layer structure model of grating and matrix transformation, in which the optimum thickness of coating [ In2O3 9 SnO2 1][indium tin oxide ITO ] is found, and the influence of environmental refractive index and wavelength for the effective refractive index of cladding mode is simulated in theory, respectively.

A structure of long-period fiber grating LPFG coated with ITO of high-index nanothin film by the pulsed laser deposition technology is reported. Gourd-shaped subring resonator-based single longitudinal mode erbium-doped fiber laser. A gourd-shaped subring resonator GSR -based single longitudinal mode erbium-doped fiber laser EDFL is proposed and experimentally demonstrated.

The GSR can effectively expand the free spectral range of the fiber laser due to the Vernier effect and eliminate the dense longitudinal modes greatly.

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At the same time, an unpumped erbium-doped fiber serves as a saturable absorber to suppress mode hopping and stabilize frequency effectively. It can be seen that the EDFL could be exploited in applications where narrow linewidth and high power stability are both required.

Reconfigurable microwave photonic frequency upconverter with local oscillator doubling or local oscillator quadrupling. The FBG is inserted to separate the positive and negative sidebands. The experimental results show that the spur suppression ratios of the upconverter with LO doubling and quadrupling are The proposed approach greatly reduces the frequency requirement of the LO signal.

Spectral interval compressing structure in spectral beam combination system for diode laser arrays. An efficient spectral beam combining SBC system for diode lasers with compressed spectral interval is proposed and demonstrated experimentally.

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This structure consists of a transmission grating and a reflector paralleled to the grating, which can make the beam diffracted twice by only one transmission grating. The advantage of this configuration is that it compresses the spectral interval of the output beam into half compared to the traditional single-grating setup and improves the utilization rate of the grating element compared to the previous double grating system. The experimental results demonstrate that the spectral intervals of a 3-emitter diode laser array DLA and a 5-emitter DLA with traditional single-grating structure are 4.

In the modified system, the spectral intervals of the same DLA with 3 and 5 emitters are 2. Study of dual-coupler fiber ring and saturable absorber-based stable single-longitudinal-mode fiber laser. A configuration of single-longitudinal-mode SLM erbium-doped-fiber EDF ring laser with high stability and narrow linewidth is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. This scheme possesses the merits of being easy to fabricate, good performance, and high stability. It is easy to manufacture without strict limitations in the length of the DCFR. Experimental direct modulation of a laser diode with a van der Pol circuit and applications.

Jimmi H. We experimentally evidence optical van der Pol VdP waveforms based on the modulation of a laser diode with a simple autonomous VdP electronic circuit. Sinusoidal and relaxation optical oscillations are obtained. Furthermore, optical relaxation pulses are easily generated based on the nonlinearity of the laser diode. Important applications in research, engineering, and technology are discussed. Analysis of flat-topped Gaussian vortex beam scintillation properties in atmospheric turbulence.

Kholoud Elmabruk , Halil Eyyuboglu. We analyze the scintillation properties of a flat-topped Gaussian vortex beam propagating in a weakly turbulent atmosphere. We utilize a random phase screen model to perform this analysis. Condition: Brand New. In Stock.

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