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Folksong Arrangements. Secular Vocal Works.

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Music for Wind Band. Not classified sheet music. Transcribed for Concert Organ solo. Trascrizione da Concerto per Grande Organo [Organ solo]. Allegretto Op. Connect to add to a playlist. Added the Pop Out Player. Composed by Various. Everybody's Favorite Series 7. Classical Period.

Piano duet book softcover. With duet notation. Music Sales AM Published by Music Sales. Similar items. For piano solo. Format: piano solo book. With standard notation, fingerings, introductory text and thematic index. For piano. This edition: edition. Celebration Series!. Baroque, Classical, Romantic, 20th century and 21st century.

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Elementary Level 1. Method bo. Intermediate Level 5. With standard notation, fingerings and thematic index. A single dotted rhythm in the opening unleashes a torrent of dotted octaves in the development which are fused with a contrasting accompanying rhythm. After a modest start, the B section of the ternary slow movement soars to unexpected heights over a bed of triplets. The agitated finale alternates eerie whisperings with ferocious eruptions. The four-movement A minor Sonata d shares the thematic richness and variety of the shorter work but is conceived on a more symphonic, even Beethovenian, scale.

The dramatic range suggests that Schubert had, at least psychologically, moved the piano sonata from the drawing room into the concert hall. With its exuberant energy and rich, wide-spaced textures, no other work of Schubert's reflects his natural surroundings more vividly than the D major Sonata d , composed during his stay in and around Bad Gastein in the summer of Fashioned for a professional pianist, Karl Maria von Bocklet, Schubert felt free to give the torrential yet dancelike triplets of the first movement full rein. The emotional range of the slow movement is unprecedented in Schubert's piano music; the seemingly innocuous syncopation that launches the subdominant second group rises to a thunderous fff climax.

The driving five-note dotted upbeat of the hemiola-laden Scherzo is a perfect foil both to the trio, with its wide harmonic vistas, and the relaxed, playful rondo finale. Only their position at the end of Schubert's short life prompts us to label the final trilogy of piano sonatas d —60 as late.

Now in his prime, Schubert laid out three independent solutions to the challenge of the keyboard sonata, the first opening with a blatant tribute to the theme of Beethoven's 32 Variations in C Minor. The coincidences end there, however; the ambiguities in the sonata peak in the much maligned finale, a frantic tarantella whose apparently rambling structure belies a strikingly original treatment of sonata form.

In the A major Sonata Schubert replaces ambiguity with extroverted clarity. As in Beethoven's op. Yet it is not without discontinuities; beginning as a static barcarolle, the F minor Andantino contains a central episode which comes as close to a nervous breakdown as anything in Schubert's output, while during the rapid play of registers in the Scherzo he torpedoes a placid passage in C major with a plummeting scale in C minor. Although the last movement borrows its theme from the early A minor Sonata d and its schematic sonata-rondo layout and some of its textures from Beethoven's op.

If Schubert invests the ostensibly confident A major Sonata with a tinge of sadness, the final Sonata, in B major, is suffused by the composer's characteristic melancholy, mingled with a feeling of contemplative ecstasy. The stepwise elegiac opening alternates with disembodied trills in the bass, leading to remote keys, notably F minor, before the exposition is over.

The emphasis on F minor and the enharmonically related G major in this movement prepares listeners for the remote key of C minor in the slow movement. The suspension of time in the A section gives way to a serene A major melody that mirrors in range and contour the theme with which the sonata opened, while conjuring up the sonorities of the preceding A major Sonata. Characteristically, Schubert's tune explodes in a catharsis out of which the opening stillness re-emerges.

The opening of the finale again takes a cue from Beethoven, here the second finale of the String Quartet in B , op. Like Beethoven, Schubert feints mischievously at C minor before affirming the tonic key, B. But the movement's textures and emotional ambiguity are uniquely Schubertian. Most were improvised at social occasions or dance parties, then refined and written down later.

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Technically accessible, these predominantly bar binary forms are rarely routine, and a surprising number withstand comparison with Schubert's finest work. Pianists such as Sviatoslav Richter have created mini-sets from these groupings, repeating one or more of the dances, perhaps much as Schubert did. The compositional freedom afforded by this new genre stimulated some of Schubert's most original creations.

The six Moments musicaux , composed between and , use familiar formal patterns such as the minuet and trio nos. The enduring popularity of no. Only the first of Schubert's impromptus, a mixture of sonata, variation and through-composed elements, is not cast in ternary form. The bold opening dominant octaves act as the foil to a muted funeral march, which Schubert contrasts with an imitative, sensuously italianate closing theme.

While less experimental formally, the remaining three impromptus are highly individual. The A section of no. The last member of the group sports a key signature of A major but moves for more than 30 bars through A minor, C major and B minor before finally arriving in the home key. The contrasting B sections of all three are highly dramatic.

The final set of four impromptus d was apparently meant as a continuation of the first set. They suggest a four-movement piano sonata in F minor, with the first movement a full-blown sonata, the second a tender minuet, the third a set of variations on the theme from Rosamunde also used in the Andante of the A minor Quartet, and the fourth a highly original finale containing some of Schubert's wittiest and most audacious piano writing. In all three sections of great urgency contrast with those in which time seems to stand still.

Throughout the late piano pieces, Schubert explores a wide range of relationships between the tonic and the submediant in all its forms major and minor, lowered and raised , an alternative to the Classical polarization of tonic and dominant, and one that was extensively cultivated by later Romantic composers. Schubert's most original contribution to the keyboard repertory is arguably his music for piano duet.

Although familiar from the 18th century, keyboard music for four hands was largely restricted to ephemeral pieces or utilitarian arrangements of orchestral works. Mozart invested the genre with more ambition but, as with the lied, it was Schubert who took a marginal genre and made it central. His earliest works for piano duet were three fantasies d 1, 9, 48 , while a modest rondo d from January and four polonaises d and a sonata d of Mozartian proportions composed in Zseliz during the summer of that year mark the beginning of Schubert's sustained interest in the genre.

His first enduring success was a set of three Marches militaires d , possibly written during the summer or autumn of , which was followed by a further 11 marches over the next decade. Schubert's unusual interest in the march scarcely stemmed from any enthusiasm for war but rather from the great range of stylistic possibilities it afforded, from funeral march to evocations of toy soldiers. The best of these marches which include the six Grandes marches of exploit the full range of four hands while preserving a sense of intimate conversation.

The Grand Duo D of June marked a watershed in Schubert's development, instantly raising the piano duet to a medium worthy of comparison with the string quartet or the symphony. Both the first and second movements feature leisurely three-key expositions, with Schubert's favourite submediant as the intermediate key.

The massively scored Scherzo, with its minor-keyed trio, is a foil for the sly opening of the finale initially in A minor rather than the expected C major , which grows again to heroic proportions. At this same period Schubert invested variation form with similar substance and prestige in the Variations in A on an original theme d The seventh variation is extraordinarily bold in its chromatic colouring, while the heavily dotted eighth and final variation leads to a poetic and ultimately triumphant coda.

No work of Schubert's, incidentally, proclaims more clearly his love of Beethoven's Seventh Symphony. Between January and June of his last year Schubert created no fewer than three enduring works for piano duet. The haunting opening theme returns in the finale, setting the seal on a cyclic structure; in between comes a Largo which contrasts quasi-Baroque double-dotted rhythms with yearning lyricism, and a fleet Scherzo, both in the unlikely key of F minor.

The F minor finale is itself framed by the opening theme, between which Schubert unleashes a fugue based on a new theme. It matters little that the fugal texture gradually dissolves, for the momentum carries through until the final poignant recall of the opening. Few sonata movements by Schubert integrate so many diverse ideas so successfully. Because of its key, some commentators have suggested that the sublime Rondo in A major d may have formed the finale of a larger work headed by d Belonging to the same family as the finale to Beethoven's E minor Sonata op.

Schubert's first instrument was the violin, and he began writing string quartets at the age of 13 or The existence of a family quartet provided the impressionable teenager with a ready made laboratory. Yet the demands of the new medium perfected by Haydn, Mozart and the Beethoven of the Razumovsky quartets took Schubert almost a decade to assimilate fully.

The youthful experiment of the quartet in mixed keys d 18 of —11 was succeeded by a progressively more assured series of seven quartets over the next two to three years. In these works the influences of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven are readily apparent. Between and , years dominated by song composition, Schubert produced only three quartets whose movements are of widely varying quality.

In many of these early quartets Schubert resorts, not always successfully, to quasi-orchestral textures. It was another four years before he produced the first movement of a quartet in C minor, the so-called Quartettsatz d of , a work of furious intensity that heralded Schubert's maturity as a composer of instrumental music. Its concentration and variety of texture and register paved the way for the three great quartets of Schubert's last years. While the poignant, long-spanned theme-and-accompaniment opening of the Quartet in A minor d the first of a planned set of three is rooted in the world of song, the movement as a whole reveals a new thematic economy, tautness of development and phrase-by-phrase logic.

Schubert borrowed the theme of the Andante from his incidental music to Rosamunde ; but the quartet movement is expanded into a more substantial ABAB form, plus a coda based on both A and B d The ostensibly cheerful opening of the A major finale is undercut by a minor-mode second group and an ambivalent final cadence. The first movement uses full, almost orchestral textures with a previously unthinkable power and intensity. Yet there is almost no doubling, with Schubert relying instead on an extraordinary range of widely spaced double and triple stops.

The celebrated G minor slow movement takes the chorale-like theme through a series of five variations in which, except for the exquisite variation in the major, harmony dominates melody. The explosive dotted-rhythm scherzo is seemingly modelled on the first few bars of a German dance d no. The grimly inexorable sonata-rondo finale is cast as a saltarello, and may have been in Mendelssohn's mind when he wrote his Italian Symphony. Schubert's final quartet, in G major, d , dates from almost two years later, and is contemporary with Beethoven's last quartet, op. Although Schubert's quartet is formally less sophisticated than Beethoven's, it is revolutionary in the way it makes the contrast between major and minor modes the basis of much of the structure.

Schubert's harmonic language was fuelled from the outset by the frequent equivocation between major and minor; but during the course of his career local colouring was gradually supplanted by longer-range strategies, of which d provides the most far-reaching and disturbing example. The modal interplay is reinforced by contrasts of dynamics, spacing and texture, with a telling use of pizzicato. Between and Schubert composed eight works for piano and a single wind or string instrument. The four sonatas for violin and piano d , , , ; the first three were published as sonatinas, perhaps to enhance their appeal to an amateur market are compact, graceful works whose unassuming character conceals an intimate understanding of the medium's conversational potential.

In —7 Schubert returned to this same combination for the Rondo in B minor d , easily his most impressive work for this medium, and the Fantasy in C, d The technical demands of both works are considerable, but equally evident is Schubert's penchant for formal experimentation. The Sonata for arpeggione and piano d , is often underrated, although its cause is not helped by modern arrangements for various instruments, from the cello to the flute.

The arpeggione's soulful, almost speechlike upper register was clearly in the forefront of Schubert's mind when he composed this idiosyncratic work. Apart from a youthful movement for piano trio, Schubert's three principal works for piano and strings are all products of his last decade.

The recapitulation of the opening movement, beginning in the subdominant, is a compressed transposition of the exposition, while the second and last movements make considerable use of transposed repetition, all factors suggesting that the work was composed rapidly. The variation fourth movement is based on Die Forelle , the popular song composed two years earlier, with the song's A phrase repeated to give the quintet theme added weight. Schubert probably composed, or at least began, both of his expansive piano trios in the autumn of His recent friendships with the pianist Bocklet, the violinist Schuppanzigh and the cellist Linke may have rekindled his interest in the medium after a gap of some 15 years.

In the first movement of the B Trio d , Schubert creates delightfully fluid textures, with the strings now playing in unison, now engaged in conversational interplay, while piano accompaniments invariably include thematic elements. The approach to the second group — the emotional centre of the movement — employs a favourite Schubertian device in which a sustained single tonic note here, A in the cello is suddenly redefined as the mediant of the secondary key F. The intensely lyrical but disjunct theme is expanded to ten bars, with the melodic peak reserved for the final statement in the piano.

In the ensuing Andante, cast in a free ternary design, the serene A section encloses a volatile central episode. The trio of the Scherzo, a movement of almost symphonic scope, features a sighing stepwise melody that passes from violin to cello before concluding in a poignant duet. Labelled a rondo, the sonata-form finale opens playfully before launching into an ambitious series of thematic developments crowned by a rhythmic transformation of the opening theme in triple metre.

A Notturno in E major d was probably intended as the original slow movement of the B Trio. Its turbulently imitative B section, contrasting with the timelessness of the opening, has a volcanic power found in many of Schubert's later slow movements. The exposition and recapitulation sustain much of their interest by constantly inflecting the major mode with the minor, enabling Schubert to draw out the descent from B minor to the dominant a semitone below.

After reaching a fff climax in the coda, the movement ends with witty and touching piano reference to the second group. Schubert accompanies the first return of the A theme with explicitly marked tremolandos that lead to a shattering climax in B minor, the key that had played a crucial role in the first movement. The lilting Scherzando, written in close canon, makes one wonder how Schubert could have doubted his own contrapuntal skills. The movement ends with a truncated return of the trio, recalling the final allusion to the second theme in the opening movement.

More novel is the varied return of the first theme from the slow movement, creating the kind of cyclic structure that would prove irresistible to composers of the next generation.

Perhaps under pressure from friends, Schubert acknowledged the problematic length of his finale and authorized two cuts generally adopted today. Schubert composed two chamber works for unusual combinations of instruments. The Octet in F d ; string quartet plus double bass, clarinet, horn, and bassoon was commissioned by Count Troyer, who played the clarinet at the first performance.

The work contains a few orchestral-style tuttis, none of which, however, undermines the work's essential chamber style. Except for passing shadows in the coda of the Adagio and the minuet, the first five movements, which include a set of brilliant variations on a jaunty theme from the operetta Die Freunde von Salamanka , are almost entirely free from the sombre colours found in much of Schubert's later music. Only in the introduction to the finale, with its eerie tremolandos, does darkness fall unexpectedly before evaporating in a breezy quickstep march.

An internal impulse seems to have fuelled the composition of what many regard as Schubert's crowning achievement in chamber music, the String Quintet in C d , whose genesis overlaps with the late piano sonatas. Schubert's choice of a second cello rather than the second viola preferred by Mozart was prompted by his evident affection for the cello's plangent tenor range and by the increased textural possibilities offered by the extra cello. Unlike Boccherini in his quintets with two cellos, Schubert gave each of the instruments virtually equal prominence.

Beethoven - Mailied, Op. 52 No. 4 (Peter Schreier, Norman Shetler)

In only a few other works, notably the G major Quartet, does Schubert derive a large-scale structure so cogently from the opening material, heard in the first movement as a deeply felt struggle between minor and major; in a masterly stroke of ambiguity, the apparent slow introduction here turns out to have been in the movement's basic Allegro tempo all along. The achingly beautiful cello duet that forms the intermediate stage of the three-keyed exposition derives much of its poetic effect from the reinterpreted G in the second cello that sinks flatwards to E.

Perhaps the most astonishing feature of the movement is its range of textures including liberal use of pizzicato , with the instruments often grouped into two pairs plus one single voice. Remarkably, the movement seems to expand the sonorities of chamber music rather than veering towards an orchestral style of writing.

The ethereal, disembodied melody of the Adagio creates an illusion of time suspended.

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Major—minor contrasts continue to colour the harmonic discourse at both the local and structural levels, the latter most evident in the abrupt juxtaposition of the A section in E major with the anguished B section in F minor. With the return of the A section haunted by distant echoes of the earthly struggles in the B section, it is not surprising that musicians such as the pianist Artur Rubinstein — not to mention the writer Thomas Mann — expressed a wish to die while listening to this movement. Extreme contrasts continue in the Scherzo, where the manic energy of the Scherzo itself provides a haunting foil for the wraithlike stillness of the D trio, which, like the F minor episode of the Adagio, is placed a semitone above the movement's main tonality.

For his finale Schubert took refuge in the Viennese dance music he had known since a child, all the while counterpoising the pronounced lilt of the main theme with ppp textures of the most transparent delicacy. In a bittersweet, disquieting ending that only Schubert could have conceived, the Quintet ends with the notes D —C, leaving the question of mode as ambiguous as in the opening chords of the first movement.

Of all the genres in which Schubert worked, the one that interested his friends and supporters least was orchestral music. Along with Salieri, the Schubert circle, with its poets, playwrights, painters and philosophers, was far more involved with the more intimate forms of music-making, especially the lied.

Nonetheless, Schubert's interest in composing for orchestra dates back to his mid-teens and dominated his deathbed. He began more symphonies 13 than Beethoven, and completed seven. Schubert's first six symphonies, most of them written for performance by a private orchestra which had grown out of the family string quartet, are apprentice works, full of ingratiating touches and, less frequently, genuine originality. It is worth remembering that at the age when Beethoven finished his First Symphony, Schubert had little over a year to live. Born at just the right moment to inherit the full symphonic flowering of Mozart and Haydn, as well as the intimidating assaults of Beethoven, Schubert took full advantage of his legacy.

Although his first essay, an Allegro in D d 2 b , calls, unusually, for trombones, his First Symphony d 82 adopts the formal outline and scoring of Haydn's second set of London symphonies: a slow introduction leading to a sonata-form Allegro, a spacious slow movement, a symphonic minuet in the tonic key of the work, and a lighter, scurrying finale that opens softly before a tutti explosion.

From the syncopated, scampering thematic material of the opening Allegro, through the theme-and-variations slow movement and the off-tonic C minor minuet to the use of three distinct key centres in the exposition of the finale, the Second Symphony, in B major d , displays considerably more nerve and ambition. The Third Symphony in D , d looks back to no. Schubert's Fourth Symphony in C minor, d betrays no influence of Beethoven's epic Fifth Symphony in the same key, harking instead back to Mozartian chromaticism.

Of the two major-mode inner movements, the A Andante includes two troubled sections in the minor, while the minuet, in E major, is disturbingly chromatic. The finale, which also moves to the submediant for the second group, recasts the recapitulation entirely in the major, although the effect is more colouristic than a true resolution of preceding conflicts.

The popularity of Schubert's Symphony no. Its deeper appeal stems from its classical balance of thematic and structural elements. In the first movement Schubert abandons his hitherto usually perfunctory recapitulations for a genuine resolution, adding 16 new bars that prepare for the final cadence. The three remaining movements repeatedly invoke Haydn and, especially, Mozart: the slow movement, for instance, virtually quotes the theme of the minuet finale from Mozart's Violin Sonata in F, k , while the minuet is clearly indebted to the G minor Symphony k Schubert's final youthful symphonic venture, the Sixth Symphony, in C d , suggests a composer looking for new directions but not sure where to strike out.

Written within just over four years of each other, the first six symphonies portray a gifted apprentice largely content to embellish — with a dash of Rossini and his own more relaxed phrase structure — the exalted legacy of Haydn, Mozart and, to a lesser degree, Beethoven. During the years —22 he strove to evolve a more individual, subjective conception of the four-movement sonata ideal; and his struggles are betrayed by the fact that all of the symphonies he began at this period remained torsos. Sketches for the outer movements of a symphony in D d , May were abandoned, in spite of promising ideas.

Some two years later a more ambitious symphonic project, also in D d a , suffered the same fate, although extensive piano score sketches for four movements reveal some original ideas, including a daring choice of the key of the tritone A major for the second group in the first movement. The following year, , Schubert completed a draft of a symphony in E d that finally makes a decisive break with Haydn and Mozart.

Following a bold minor-mode introduction to the first movement, Schubert eschews the repeat of the exposition. Three of the movements employ his characteristic three-key exposition, and the thematic structure is highly unified. Yet Schubert's full scoring for an orchestra including trombones and four horns of less than a third of the opening movement betrays his dissatisfaction with a work that was quickly abandoned, although its completion has proved irresistible to conductors and scholars from Weingartner onwards.

Unlike his previous symphonic attempts, Schubert fully orchestrated the first two movements, together with part of the Scherzo. Orchestral works in B minor were almost unheard of in ; and originality informs every aspect of the work. The startling move to the submediant, G major, is accomplished with shattering swiftness. The soaring cello theme that follows and its syncopated accompaniment, are treated at length in the latter part of the exposition; the development works the opening theme to a pitch of almost hysterical anguish before recalling the syncopated accompaniment in isolation from the cello melody — an effect of indescribable poignancy.

At the start of the recapitulation the main theme is withheld in order to enhance the dramatic force of its reappearance in the coda. With its towering climaxes, its subjective, almost confessional, tone and its extreme contrasts between violence and lyrical pathos this movement is unprecedented in the symphonic literature.

In the E major Andante con moto Schubert uses a familiar structural pattern ABABA to uniquely poetic ends, from the assuaging opening theme, exquisitely shared between horns, strings and woodwind, through the haunting clarinet and oboe melody over a syncopated accompaniment shades of the first movement and the volcanic tutti explosions, to the coda, with its miraculous harmonic sleights-of-hand. Nowadays Schubert's two completed movements are sometimes performed with an orchestral completion of the Scherzo and, as a finale, the imposing B minor Entr'acte from Rosamunde , which makes at least a plausible conclusion.

Having failed to complete four successive symphonies, Schubert might have given up on symphonic ventures. Few works have such unquenchable rhythmic vitality or seem more expressive of their direct surroundings, from the opening horn call, which returns as a triumphant apotheosis in the coda, to the brisk step of the stoical, marchlike Andante con moto, from the joyous alfresco dance of the vast sonata-form Scherzo, saturated by its opening motif, to the surging triplets of the gargantuan finale. Having found his symphonic voice — a voice at once lyrical, colouristic and expansive — Schubert was understandably eager to undertake more symphonic projects.

The so-called Symphony no. He lived long enough to sketch a three-movement work in which the last movement was apparently to combine the function of scherzo and finale. The first movement exhibits structural gaps that challenge any projected completion. The last revisions appear to have been made in the remarkable slow movement again in B minor!

As perhaps the last music Schubert composed, its mingled serenity and sense of loss may have grown out of his acceptance of his own fate. In practice, Schubert borrowed freely from the traditions of Haydn, Mozart and, eventually, Beethoven while simultaneously developing his own strategies to new, subjectively expressive ends.

Perhaps most significant here was Schubert's extension of the polarized tonic—dominant Classical harmonic discourse to a full range of flat-side relationships — subdominant, flat mediant, submediant and, especially, flat submediant. With its flat-side staging posts, the well-documented three-key exposition attenuated the pull of the dominant.

Though Schubert was by no means the inventor of this strategy well-known precedents include the first movement of Beethoven's Waldstein Sonata , he raised it to extraordinary levels of subtlety. Along with this came both a blurring and an intensified colouristic use of the major—minor modal system. In its simplest form this might involve converting a major-mode theme into the minor an extension of Mozart's practice , or it might involve a systematic rhetoric of ambiguity, as in the first movement of the C major Quintet.

If Schubert's use of rhythm has received less attention, its generally looser, post-Classical structure proved eminently capable of supporting the arching melodic periods for which he is justly known. Although Schubert's melodic gift has long been celebrated, it resists generalization. But his characteristic fingerprints include a predilection for themes that revolve around the mediant, that move mostly by steps but are defined by a telling leap, in which each phrase carries the impetus for the next, and in which closure often on to the tonic is delayed until the last possible moment.

In line with this broadened expressive range, Schubert's style can best be understood as a series of four discrete styles. Schubert's popular tone is even more pervasive than Mozart's, surfacing in substantial as well as occasional genres. Counterpoised to this is what might be called the ambitious style — works and passages that openly declare their complexity.

While weighted towards the last half of Schubert's career, they include works from every genre in which he worked. The late symphonies, masses, string quartets and piano sonatas contain only the most obvious examples. Finally, Schubert penned passages that can only be described albeit unhistorically as avant garde.

But they also include the Wagnerian pre-echoes in Lazarus and the Count's recitative no. Schubert's direct influence on the course of 19th-century music arguably exceeded that of Beethoven. That, like Beethoven, he exercised no influence over opera, the dominant form of public music for the duration of the century, does not diminish his contribution. The flood of lieder by composers such as Franz, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Brahms, Wolf and Mahler are quite unimaginable without the extraordinary precedent of Schubert. Of these, it was perhaps Wolf who came closest to replicating the vast emotional range of Schubert.

While Schubert's writing for piano was less obviously innovative than that of Chopin, Schumann and Liszt, its influence was by no means neglible. The ability to exploit and extend the singing qualities of the Viennese piano, the wealth of innovative accompanimental textures, the formal experimentation, and the cultivation of new single-movement genres, including miniatures such as the Moments musicaux , were all to leave their mark on subsequent generations.

It is hard to imagine Brahms at all without the example of Schubert. The gradual publication of Schubert's works throughout the 19th century meant that new discoveries were constantly being made, affording numerous opportunities for influence. These cropped up in unexpected places: the harmonic vocabulary of the King of Ragtime, Scott Joplin, is lifted in almost textbook fashion directly from Schubert, while unmistakable Schubertian gestures such as the ubiquitous flat sixth chord pop up in, say, the Beatles' I saw her standing there. Indeed, the very language of musical theatre, from Siegmund Romberg to Andrew Lloyd Webber, is saturated with Schubertian melodic and harmonic syntax.

Schubert's Vienna was a polyglot city, more than a fifth of whose population comprised Hungarians, Czechs, Italians, Croatians, Poles, Germans, Turks, Greeks and other nationalities. As a native Viennese, Schubert became the direct beneficiary of its musical offerings. He was born in the district of the Himmelpfortgrund just north-west of the Ring, the bustling, overcrowded centre of the capital of the empire. He followed his oldest brother Karl, who had become the headmaster of the Carmelite School in the suburb of Leopoldstadt. He took up the position of schoolteacher, one that offered little social standing or financial reward; education was an enterprise supported only meagrely by the imperial government.

Within a year Franz Theodor met Elisabeth Vietz — whose father, a locksmith and gunmaker, spent time in prison for embezzlement. Her family had also migrated to Vienna from the northern provinces. In January of Franz and Elisabeth married; one reason may have been the birth of their first child two months later. Schubert's birth in the early afternoon of 31 January took place in a kitchen alcove whose fireplace provided the family's only source of heat.

He was baptized the next day, with his uncle Karl Schubert named as godfather.

A Dictionary of Music and Musicians/Beethoven, Ludwig van, catalogue

Schubert thereby became the only one of the canonic quartet with Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven of Viennese Classical composers to be born in Vienna — although many natives of the city have been quick to point out that he was only first-generation Viennese. The bottom floor of this two-storey structure with courtyard served as the school; the upstairs served as the family's living quarters.

Here Franz Theodor, an industrious, devout Catholic, built his student population steadily until he had 40 students in , peaking to students in Most of the scant information we possess about Schubert's childhood comes from later reminiscences by his father and his brother Ferdinand. Six-year-old Franz became a pupil at the school in and by all accounts he was a high achiever, although in a system that, by imperial decree, depended almost entirely on rote learning.

The Schubert family were great music lovers, and although musical training played no role in formal education, there was plenty of it after hours. When Schubert was seven he was sent for an audition to Antonio Salieri; presumably his father made the arrangements. Salieri's reputation as a composer had peaked years before, but in his 50s he still enjoyed the power and prestige of the court music director. He was sufficiently impressed with Schubert to include him as a mezzo-soprano on a list of nine singers fit to sing for services in the imperial Hofkapelle.

At the age of eight Schubert received his first violin lessons from his father. He also took lessons in counterpoint, figured bass, singing and organ from Michael Holzer, the organist at the Schuberts' parish church in Lichtental. Ferdinand also noted that Schubert was already composing songs, string quartets and piano pieces. When vacancies in the Hofkapelle choir opened up in , Schubert passed the highly competitive audition easily.

The all-male students ranged from 11 to university age and were tutored by Piarist monks whose order was founded in the 17th century to educate the poor. A few months after entering the college, Schubert cowered while Napoleon's bombardment of Vienna sent a shell through the roof of the Stadtkonvikt.

Metric Analysis and the Metaphor of Energy: A Way into Selected Songs by Wolf and Schoenberg

Nonetheless, he was to stay at the college for five full years, receiving the kind of education usually reserved for titled Viennese. Encouraged by its principal, Dr Innocenz Lang, music played a sizable role in the life of the college. Its student orchestra was first-rate, and Schubert was soon invited to join the second violins.

Here he became acquainted at first hand with the orchestral works of Haydn, Mozart, early Beethoven and their lesser Viennese contemporaries. The orchestra's founder and leader of the second violins was a law student named Josef von Spaun. Eight years Schubert's senior, Spaun soon befriended the impressionable youth, and the friendship flourished, in spite of interruptions, until the composer's death.

At the end of the school year Spaun graduated; he left Vienna in September to join the civil service at Linz. According to Spaun, Mozart's Symphony no. From these years come the earliest of his surviving compositions. During his first two years he received permission to take regular lessons with Salieri, who urged him to find his models in Italian opera, a directive that conflicted sharply with Schubert's enthusiasm for the music of Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven, as well as his growing interest in the poetry of Goethe and Schiller as material for songs.

By the time he was 13 Schubert seems to have interrupted his regular lessons with Salieri. He also wrote four symphonies and many other works. The German bass-baritone brings near-Wagnerian intensity to Schumann's two great cycles of , yet he and Andsnes are at their most spellbinding in the introspective songs. For the Love of Brahms.

Schumann: Liederkreis Op. Robert Schumann Composer. Show full biography Afflicted with increasingly severe mental instability, Schumann died in a mental asylum.